对于每个时代(era) (在 Kusama 大约6小时，在 Polkadot 大约24小时），验证人将按照他们的era points的数量按比例支付。era points 是指通过以下方式获得的奖励积分:
- 为 平行链 区块发布有效性声明。
- producing a non-uncle block in the Relay Chain.
Note: An uncle block is a Relay Chain block that is valid in every regard, but which failed to become canonical. This can happen when two or more validators are block producers in a single slot, and the block produced by one validator reaches the next block producer before the others. We call the lagging blocks uncle blocks.
不管验证人背后的抵押总额是多少，所有验证人都会拆分出块奖励。 但是总支付额可能会根据era points而有所不同，例如如上所述。
为简单起见，下面的示例将假定所有验证人具有相同数量的 era points。
Validator Set Size (v): 4 Validator 1 Stake (v1): 18 DOT Validator 2 Stake (v2): 9 DOT Validator 3 Stake (v3): 8 DOT Validator 4 Stake (v4): 7 DOT Payout (p): 8 DOT Payout for each validator (v1 - v4): p / v = 8 / 4 = 2 DOT
Note that this is different than most other Proof-of-Stake systems such as Cosmos. As long as a validator is in the validator set, it will receive the same block reward as every other validator. Validator
v1, who had 18 DOT staked, received the same reward (2 DOT) in this era as
v4 who had only 7 DOT staked.
It is possible for a single entity to run multiple validators. Running multiple validators may provide a better risk/reward ratio. Assuming you have enough DOT, or enough stake nominates your validator, to ensure that your validators remain in the validator set, running multiple validators will result in a higher return than running a single validator.
For the following example, assume you have 18 DOT to stake. For simplicity's sake, we will ignore nominators. Running a single validator, as in the example above, would net you 2 DOT in this era.
Validator Set Size (v): 4 Validator 1 Stake (v1): 18 DOT <- Your validator Validator 2 Stake (v2): 9 DOT Validator 3 Stake (v3): 8 DOT Validator 4 Stake (v4): 7 DOT Payout (p): 8 DOT Your payout = (p / v) * 1 = (8 / 4) * 1 = 2
Validator Set Size (v): 4 Validator 1 Stake (v1): 9 DOT <- Your first validator Validator 2 Stake (v2): 9 DOT <- Your second validator Validator 3 Stake (v3): 9 DOT Validator 4 Stake (v4): 8 DOT Payout (p): 8 DOT Your payout = (p / v) * 1 = (8 / 4) * 2 = 4
Although rewards are paid equally, slashes are relative to a validator's stake. Therefore, if you do have enough DOT to run multiple validators, it is in your best interest to do so. A slash of 30% will, of course, be more DOT for a validator with 18 DOT staked than one with 9 DOT staked.
运行多个验证人节点并不能免除错误行为的后果。當 Polkadot 受到多个节点同時攻擊，惩罚會比單一攻擊更多。例如您不应在同一云端服务器上托管多个验证人节点。 运行多个验证人节点的正确方法是确保它们不会同时离线。
NOTE: Validators set their preference as a percentage of the block reward, not an absolute number of DOT. Polkadot's block reward is based on the total amount at stake, with the reward peaking when the amount staked is at 50% of the total supply. In periods when there is a lower amount staked, and therefore lower rewards, the validator's payout preference could mean that there is zero left over for nominators.
In the following examples, we can see the results of several different validator payment schemes and split between nominator and validator stake. We will assume a single nominator for each validator. However, there can be numerous nominators for each validator. Rewards are still distributed proportionally - for example, if the total rewards to be given to nominators is 2 DOT, and there are four nominators with equal stake bonded, each will receive 0.5 DOT. Note also that a single nominator may stake different validators.
Each validator in the example has selected a different validator payment (that is, a percentage of the reward set aside directly for the validator before sharing with all bonded stake). The validator's payment percentage (in DOT) is listed in brackets (
) next to each validator. Note that since the validator payment is public knowledge, having a low or non-existent validator payment may attract more stake from nominators, since they know they will receive a larger reward.
Validator Set Size (v): 4 Validator 1 Stake (v1) [0.2]: 18 DOT (9 validator, 9 nominator) Validator 2 Stake (v2) [0.4]: 9 DOT (3 validator, 6 nominator) Validator 3 Stake (v3) [0.1]: 8 DOT (4 validator, 4 nominator) Validator 4 Stake (v4) [0.0]: 6 DOT (1 validator, 5 nominator) Payout (p): 8 DOT Payout for each validator (v1 - v4): p / v = 8 / 4 = 2 DOT v1: (0.2 * 2) = 0.4 DOT -> validator payment (2 - 0.4) = 1.6 -> shared between all stake (9 / 18) * 1.6 = 0.8 -> validator stake share (9 / 18) * 1.6 = 0.8 -> nominator stake share v1 validator total reward: 0.4 + 0.8 = 1.2 DOT v1 nominator reward: 0.8 DOT v2: (0.4 * 2) = 0.8 DOT -> validator payment (2 - 0.8) = 1.2 -> shared between all stake (3 / 9) * 1.2 = 0.4 -> validator stake share (6 / 9) * 1.2 = 0.8 -> nominator stake share v2 validator total reward: 0.8 + 0.4 = 1.2 DOT v2 nominator reward: 0.8 DOT v3: (0.1 * 2) = 0.2 DOT -> validator payment (2 - 0.2) = 1.8 -> shared between all stake (4 / 8) * 1.8 = 0.9 -> validator stake share (4 / 8) * 1.8 = 0.9 -> nominator stake share v3 validator total reward: 0.2 + 0.9 DOT = 1.1 DOT v3 nominator reward: 0.9 DOT v4: (0 * 2) = 0 DOT -> validator payment (2 - 0) = 2.0 -> shared between all stake (1 / 6) * 2 = 0.33 -> validator stake share (5 / 6) * 2 = 1.67 -> nominator stake share v4 validator total reward: 0 + 0.33 DOT = 0.33 DOT v4 nominator reward: 1.67 DOT