Ethereum is a smart contract blockchain that allows for general computation to be deployed on-chain and operated across the p2p network. Ethereum 1.x refers to the current Ethereum release and the immediately planned future upgrades.
现在的以太坊 1.x 与 Polkadot 相差是相当大，以太坊是单一链容许开发者扩展其功能把代码(称智能合约)部署到链上。而 Polkadot 白皮书所述，它是个充分可扩展、开发可扩容的区块链、部署和交互测试的試驗台。Polkadot 目的是能够轻松地整合新的区块链、高频交易链甚至联盟链。
In practical terms, this means that the layer of abstraction between these two projects is remarkably different for developers. In Ethereum, developers write smart contracts that all execute on a single virtual machine. In Polkadot, however, developers write their logic into individual blockchains, where the interface is part of the state transition function of the blockchain itself. Polkadot will also support smart contract blockchains for Wasm and EVM to provide compatibility with existing contracts, but will not have smart contract functionality on its core chain, the Relay Chain.
As such, Polkadot is a possible augmentation and scaling method for Ethereum 1.x, rather than competition.
Binance Smart Chain
Binance Chain is a Proof of Stake Authority blockchain used to exchange digital assets on Binance DEX. Binance Smart Chain is an EVM-compatible smart contract chain bridged to Binance Chain. Together they form the Binance Dual Chain System. Binance Smart Chain is also a Proof of Stake Authority chain and allows users to create smart contracts and dapps.
Both chains are built with Cosmos SDK and therefore are a part of the Cosmos ecosystem. Due to specifics of the Cosmos architecture, interoperability of Binance Smart Chain is based on bridges. This means all validators of both chains are also bridge operators, therefore the security of the system relies on trusting validators. At the moment, there are 21 Binance Smart Chain validator nodes.
Polkadot has an entirely different purpose, as it was built to connect and secure unique blockchains. It is a protocol on which single blockchains (such as Binance Smart Chain) could be built and benefit from shared security, interoperability and scalability. Interoperability within Polkadot is based on pooled security on Polkadot, and the security of the entire Polkadot network, and has much stronger economic security.
Scalability based on bridges relies on each bridged chain finding its own set of validators, therefore duplicate resources are required. Scalability on Polkadot is based on the security of the Relay Chain, and as the number of validators in the active set on Polkadot are increased, more parachains can be supported.