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Validators' Role


This page provides a general overview of the role of validators in Polkadot. For more detailed information you can read the Protocol Overview Section in The Polkadot Parachain Host Implementers' Guide.

Validators secure the relay chain by staking DOT, validating proofs from collators and participating in consensus with other validators.

Validators play a crucial role in adding new blocks to the relay chain and, by extension, to all parachains. This allows parties to complete cross-chain transactions via the relay chain. Parachain validators (i.e. para-validators) participate in some form of off-chain consensus, and submit candidate receipts to the tx pool for a block producer to include on-chain. The relay chain validators guarantee that each parachain follows its unique rules and can pass messages between shards in a trust-free environment.

Para-validators work in groups and are selected in every epoch to validate parachain blocks for all parachains connected to the relay chain.

The selected para-validators are one of validators randomly selected (per epoch) to participate in the validation, creating a validator pool of 200 para-validators.

Validators perform two main functions:

  1. Verifying that the information contained in an assigned set of parachain blocks is valid. They receive parachain block candidates from the collators together with a Proof-of-Validity (PoV). The para-validators then check if the block candidates are valid. Candidates that gather enough signed validity statements are considered backable.
  2. Participating in the consensus mechanism to produce the relay chain blocks based on validity statements from other validators. These validators are called block authors, they are selected by BABE and can note up to one backable candidate for each parachain to include in the relay chain. A backable candidate included in the relay chain is considered backed in that fork of the chain.

Validators also contribute to the so-called availability distribution. In fact, once the candidate is backed in a fork of the relay chain, it is still pending availability, i.e. it is not included as part of the parachain until it is proven avaialable (together with the PoV). Information regarding the availability of the candidate will be noted in the following relay chain blocks. Only when there is enough information, the candidate is considered a full parachain block or parablock.

Validators also participate in the the so-called approval process. Once the parablock is considered available and part of the parachain, it is still pending approval. Because para-validators are a small subset of all validators, there is a risk that by chance the majority of para-validators assigned to a parachain might be dishonest. It is thus necessary to run a secondary verification of the parablock before it can be considered approved. Having a secondary verification step avoids the allocation of more para-validators that will ultimately reduce the throughput of the system.

Any instances of non-compliance with the consensus algorithms result in disputes with the punishment of the validators on the wrong side by removing some or all their staked DOT, thereby discouraging bad actors. Good performance, however, will be rewarded, with validators receiving block rewards (including transaction fees) in the form of DOT in exchange for their activities.

Approval Process

Having a bad parablock on the relay chain is not catastrophic as long as the block is not approved and finalized by the finality gadget GRANDPA. If the block is not finalized, the fork on the chain containing that block can be ignored in favor of another fork containing good blocks. Dealing with a bad parablock includes the following stages:

  • Detection: the bad block must be detected by honest validators.
  • Escalation: the honest validators must send that block for checks to all validators. A dispute starts.
  • Consequences: the chain is reverted and all malicious validators are slashed.

The result of the dispute must be transplantable to all other forks so that malicious validators are slashed in all possible histories and so that honest validators will ignore any forks containing that parablock.

Parablocks vs Relay-Chain blocks

It is important to understand that a relay chain block contains many parablocks. Thus, it makes more sense to think of relay-chain blocks as having been approvead instead of parablocks that have been approved. A relay-chain block containing a bad parablock must be reverted, while a relay-chain block containing only approved parablocks can be considered approved as long as its parent relay-chain block is also approved. Thus, the validity of a relay-chain block depends on the validity of its ancestry.

The Approval Process is divided into two parts:

  • Assignments determine which validators perform approval checks on which candidates, ensuring each candidate receives enough random checkers. This stage tracks approval votes to identify when no-show approval checks take suspiciously long. It also tracks relay chain equivocations to determine when adversaries possibly gained foreknowledge about assignments and adding more checks in those cases. Assignees determine their own assignments to check specific candidates using two or three assignment criteria, which are based upon two possible stories about the relay chain block that included the candidate (i.e. declared the candidate available). Assignment notices are gossiped among nodes so that all validators know which validators should check which candidates, and if any candidate requires more checkers.
  • Approval checks performs the checks by obtaining the candidate, verify its validity, and sending out the approval vote or initiating a dispute. Approval checks have a no-show timeout window (i.e. longer than one relay chain slot) to succeed in reconstructing the candidate block, redo its erasure coding to check the candidate receipt, and recheck the candidate block itself. A validator becomes tagged as no-show if does not approve or dispute within the no-show timeout window. Because validators can be overloaded with assignments, they can intentionally delay sending their assignment notice to avoid creating no-shows (see more in Assignment postponement).

These two steps first run as off-chain consensus protocols using messages gossiped among all validators, and then as on-chain record of those protocols' progress. The on-chain protocol is needed to provide rewards for the off-chain protocol. The on-chain verification has two phases: a) assignments notices and approval votes are recorded in a relay chain block, and b) in another relay chain block notes are fed into the approval code.

The gossiped messages are of two types, assignment notices and approval votes, and are singed with approval keys. Such keys are part of the session keys used by validators. Briefly, approval keys are:

  • Approval assignment keys that are sr25519 keys used only for assignment criteria VRF.
  • Approval vote keys that are ed25519 and would only sign off on a candidate parablock validity.

For detailed information about the approval process see dedicated section in The Polkadot Parachain Host Implementers' Guide.

Accepting a parablock is the end result of having passed through the detection stage without dispute, or having passed through and escalation/dispute stage with a positive outcome.


All parachain blocks that are in the finalized relay chain should be valid. This, does not apply to backed blocks that are not included. To ensure nothing invalid ends up in the finalized relay chain there are approval checks (described above) and disputes. The latter ensures that each attempt to include something invalid is caught and the offending validators are punished.

Disputes are independent from a particular fork, while backing and approval operate on particular forks. The approval voting stops if an alternative fork (which might not contain the currently-approved candidate) is finalized. In fact, the sole purpose of the approval process is to make sure invalid blocks are not finalized. However, even though the danger is past and the offending validators did not manage to get the invalid block approved, those validators need to get slashed for the attempt.

A dispute stems from a disagreement between two or more validators. For this to happen, a bad actor needs to distribute an invalid block to honest validators. Scenarios leading to a dispute can be one of the followings (ordered from most to least important):

  • A parablock included on a branch of the relay chain is bad
  • A parablock backed on a branch of the relay chain is bad
  • A parablock seconded, but not backed on any branch of the relay chain, is bad

Checking a parachain block requires 3 pieces of data: the parachain validator code, the availability of data, and the candidate receipt. The validator code is available on-chain and published ahead of time. Thus, a dispute process begins with the availability to ensure the availability of the data. Such process will conclude quickly if the data is already available, otherwise the initiator of the dispute must make it available.

Disputes have both off- and on-chain components. Slashing is handled on-chain, so votes by validators on either sides of the dispute must be placed on-chain. Moreover, a dispute on one branch of the chain must be transposed to all active branches so that misbehavior can be punished in all possible histories. There is thus a distinction between local (the one we are looking at) and remote disputes relative to a particular branch of the relay chain.

Disputes can be divided into three different phases:

  • Dispute initiation: Disputes are initiated by any validator who finds their opinion on the validity of a parablock in opposition to another issued statement. The initiation begins off-chain by only nodes perceiving that a parablock is bad. The validator can be one of the para-validators (i.e. one of the backers) or one of the approval checkers. Note that, if the dispute occurs during the backing phase, the initiator must make the data available while if the dispute occurs during the approval process the data is already available.
  • Dispute participation: Once becoming aware of the dispute, all validators must participate.
  • Dispute conclusion: Disputes conclude after 2/3 supermajority is reached on either side. Disputes may also conclude after a timeout. This will only happen if the majority of validators are unable to vote for some reason.

The on-chain component of the dispute can be initiated by providing any two conflicting votes and it also waits for 2/3 supermajority on either side. The component also tracks which parablocks have already been disputed so that the same parablock can be disputed only once on any particular branch of the relay chain. Inclusion is halted for the parachain until the dispute resolves.


For detailed information about disputes see dedicated section in The Polkadot Parachain Host Implementers' Guide. In the Guide there are also more details about disputes' flows.

Chain Selection

Chain selection is used to select blocks to build on and finalize. These processes need to consistent among nodes and resilient to a maximum proportion of malicious nodes. The parachain host uses a block authoring system and a finality gadget. The chain selection strategy involves a leaf-selection rule and a set of finality constraints.


For detailed information about chain selection see dedicated section in The Polkadot Parachain Host Implementers' Guide.

Further Readings


Other References

Security / Key Management

Monitoring Tools

  • PANIC for Polkadot - A monitoring and alerting solution for Polkadot / Kusama node
  • Polkadot Telemetry Service - Network information, including what nodes are running on a given chain, what software versions they are running, and sync status.

Validator Stats

  • HashQuark Staking Strategy - The HashQuark staking strategy dashboard helps you choose the optimal set-up to maximize rewards, and provides other useful network monitoring tools.
  • Polkastats - Polkastats is a cleanly designed dashboard for validator statistics.
  • YieldScan - Staking yield maximization platform, designed to minimize effort.
  • Subscan Validators Page - Displays information on the current validators - not as tailored for validators as the other sites.