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Open Source Polkadot Stack

The goal of this page is to provide an overview of the open-source Polkadot/Kusama Tech Stack.

This is a living document and we are relying on our community to contribute to it and help maintain it. Please feel free to make edits and additions via pull requests. We apologize if we missed your project!


The Polkadot Tech Stack is a subset of the Web 3.0 Tech Stack, which consists of the open-source technologies contributing to and relying on Polkadot, Kusama and Substrate. It is meant to be used for decentralized application (Dapp) development within numerous verticals including DeFi, Gaming, Provenance and many others not pictured below.

| DeFi | Gaming | Provenance |
| Explorers, Wallets / |
| Tools, Apis, Languages/ |
| 2nd layer protocols / |
| Chains / other |
|------------------/--- --|
| *Polkadot* | tech |
| P2P, Crypto, Wasm \ |

Layers of Polkadot Stackโ€‹

In the below sections you can find a list of different layers of the Polkadot Stack.

Maintenance Status:

  • ๐ŸŸข Actively maintained
  • ๐ŸŸก Stale (no activity for 1 month)
  • ๐Ÿ”ด Unmaintained (no activity for more than 3 months)

User Interfaceโ€‹

ComponentsExisting projectsPotentially interesting projects
Desktop/Web WalletsTalisman Web Application ๐ŸŸข, AirGap ๐ŸŸข, Sakura ๐Ÿ”ดUser-friendly Wallet based on the Recovery Pallet, Web wallets focused on user-onboarding (e.g. using localStorage )
Browser ExtensionsEnkrypt ๐ŸŸข, Polkadot{.js} ๐ŸŸข, Polkadot-Js-Plus-Extension ๐ŸŸข, SubWallet-Extension ๐ŸŸข, Doter ๐Ÿ”ด, Enzyme ๐Ÿ”ด, Speckle OS ๐Ÿ”ดSign-in with your polkadot, kusama, etc. account.
Mobile WalletsLunie ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkawallet ๐Ÿ”ด, Parity Signer ๐ŸŸข, imToken ๐ŸŸข, Fearless Wallet Android ๐ŸŸข, Fearless Wallet iOS ๐ŸŸข, Stylo ๐ŸŸก, Nova Wallet ๐ŸŸข, Fractapp ๐Ÿ”ด, Interstellar Network ๐ŸŸก, Hashed Wallet ๐ŸŸข
Burner Wallets/FaucetKodaDot ๐Ÿ”ด, Astar Faucet Bot ๐ŸŸกFaucet (a sybil-resistant way to receive free tokens)
CLI WalletSubwallet ๐Ÿ”ด, Proxy-hot-wallet ๐Ÿ”ด
Multisignature WalletsSubscan Multisig UI - React ๐ŸŸข, Subscan Multisig UI ๐Ÿ”ด, Dorafactory-Multisig ๐Ÿ”ด
Hardware WalletsLedger Polkadot ๐ŸŸข, Ledger Kusama ๐ŸŸข, Ledger Statemint ๐ŸŸก, Ledger Statemine ๐ŸŸกTrezor
Block ExplorersCalamar ๐ŸŸข, Polkaholic ๐ŸŸข, Polkascan ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkastats ๐Ÿ”ด, Subscan ๐ŸŸข, Statescan ๐ŸŸข, Edgscan ๐Ÿ”ด, Epirus ๐ŸŸขInk Smart Contract Explorer, Mempool focused explorer (including parachain transaction)
Validator DashboardsPolkacube ๐Ÿ”ด, YieldScan ๐Ÿ”ด, Hubble ๐Ÿ”ด
Node ExplorersPolkadot Node Explorer ๐Ÿ”ด
NFT ExplorerNFT Explorer for Kusama & Polkadot ๐ŸŸข
Governance DashboardsPolkassembly ๐ŸŸข, dotreasury ๐ŸŸข, Bright Treasury ๐ŸŸข, OpenSquare offchain voting ๐ŸŸขUI for the kusama and/or polkadot treasury (see bounty module ), UI for Parachain Lease Offering (PLO)
StakingStaking Rewards Collector ๐ŸŸข, Staking Rewards Viewer ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkadot Staking Site ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkadot Staking Dashboard ๐ŸŸข
Bridge UIParity Bridges UI ๐ŸŸข, Donut Interface (Steem - Dot) ๐Ÿ”ด
Parachain/CrowdloanParachains.Network ๐Ÿ”ด, PolkAuction ๐ŸŸก
IdenticonPolkadotWebIdenticon ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkadot Angular IdentIcon ๐Ÿ”ด, Bird Identicon ๐Ÿ”ด
OtherKappaSigmaMu Fratority ๐ŸŸข, Quadratic Funding Webapp ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkawatch, Bytepay ๐ŸŸก, charging-management-platform ๐Ÿ”ด, subidentity-webapp ๐ŸŸข, OpenSquare Paid QA ๐ŸŸขPortfolio Viewer like Zapper or Zerion

Tools, APIs and Languagesโ€‹

ComponentsExisting projectsPotentially interesting projects
ParachainParachain utilities ๐Ÿ”ด, Gantree ๐Ÿ”ดTools to create parachains from frameworks used in other ecosystems
Client LibrariesGo ๐ŸŸข, .Net ๐Ÿ”ด, .NET Standard 2.0 ๐ŸŸข, C++ ๐Ÿ”ด, C ๐Ÿ”ด, Haskell ๐ŸŸข, Javascript ๐ŸŸข, Substrate API Sidecar - TypeScript ๐ŸŸข, Ruby ๐Ÿ”ด, Python ๐ŸŸข, Java (+ Android) ๐ŸŸก, Substrate Client Java ๐ŸŸก, Rust SCS ๐ŸŸข, Rust Parity ๐ŸŸข, PHP (gmajor-encrypt) ๐Ÿ”ด, PHP (neha0921) ๐Ÿ”ด, RPC-Ethereum ๐ŸŸข, Swift ๐Ÿ”ด, Kotlin ๐Ÿ”ด
Substrate Contract clientsPatractGo ๐Ÿ”ด
SCALE CodecRust ๐ŸŸข, TypeScript ๐ŸŸข, Python ๐ŸŸข, Golang Chainsafe ๐ŸŸข, Golang Itering ๐ŸŸข, C ๐Ÿ”ด, C++ ๐ŸŸข, JavaScript ๐ŸŸข, AssemblyScript ๐Ÿ”ด, Haskell ๐ŸŸข, Java ๐ŸŸก, Ruby ๐Ÿ”ด, Dart ๐Ÿ”ด, Swift ๐Ÿ”ด, PHP ๐ŸŸข, JavaScript by Soramitsu ๐ŸŸข, Scale Codec Comparator ๐ŸŸข
Easy Runtime DevelopmentSubalfred ๐ŸŸข, VS Code Plugin ๐Ÿ”ด, Atom Code Plugin ๐Ÿ”ด, Substrate Playground ๐ŸŸข, Substrate Marketplace VS Code Plugin ๐Ÿ”ด, AssemblyScript Runtime Generation ๐Ÿ”ด, Substrate Package Manager ๐Ÿ”ด, Subsembly: Framework for developing AssemblyScript Substrate Runtimes ๐Ÿ”ด, dependency diener ๐ŸŸข
Easy Smart Contract DevelopmentTypechain Polkadot ๐ŸŸก, ink-playground ๐Ÿ”ด, Ink! Remix Plugin ๐Ÿ”ด
Runtime SecuritySubstrate Toml Lint ๐ŸŸข, K specifications ๐Ÿ”ด, PolPatrol - Polkadot Runtime Checker ๐Ÿ”ดAutomated Runtime checking tools, economic audit simulator such as
Smart Contract LanguagesAsk! ๐ŸŸข, Subscript ๐Ÿ”ด, Solang ๐ŸŸข, Ink! ๐ŸŸข, Move VM Substrate ๐Ÿ”ด, Move smart contract by Neatcoin ๐Ÿ”ด, Sol2Ink ๐ŸŸกFunctional Programming Languages, other languages with developed toolchains
Smart Contract SecurityVanguard ๐ŸŸข
TestingHalva ๐Ÿ”ด, Ink Waterfall ๐ŸŸข, Redspot ๐Ÿ”ด, MixBytes Tank ๐Ÿ”ด, sub-flood ๐Ÿ”ด, Substrate debug-kit ๐Ÿ”ด, Dotscale - SCALE Codec Comparator ๐Ÿ”ด, Asset CLI tool ๐ŸŸก, sub_crash ๐Ÿ”ด, subwasm ๐ŸŸข, subsee ๐Ÿ”ด, polkadot-lab ๐Ÿ”ด, Zombienet ๐ŸŸข, RPC-perf ๐ŸŸก
TestnetPolkadot Launch ๐ŸŸก, polkadot-starship ๐Ÿ”ด, Fork off Substrate ๐Ÿ”ด, Parachain Launch ๐ŸŸข
BenchmarkingSubstrate Graph Benchmarks ๐Ÿ”ด
Blockchain Indexing EngineSubstrate Archive ๐ŸŸข, PSQL Indexer ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkadothub Indexer โ”, Substrate Graph ๐Ÿ”ด, Hydra ๐Ÿ”ด, Subquery ๐ŸŸข, Polkadot Profit Transformer ๐ŸŸข
Blockchain/Event MonitoringWeb3 Guardian ๐ŸŸก, Aurras Event Manager ๐ŸŸก, @commonwealth/chain-events ๐ŸŸก, Massbit ๐ŸŸก
GamingCrossbow ๐ŸŸขAmethyst + Substrate
No-code PlatformsEzCode's Polkadot.js plugin on ๐Ÿ”ด, Blackprint Visual Programming Polkadot.js module ๐ŸŸข
XCMXCM-tools ๐ŸŸข, ParaSpell ๐ŸŸข
WalletsMetadata Portal ๐ŸŸข, Tesseract ๐ŸŸก, WalletConnect ๐Ÿ”ด, BitGoJS ๐ŸŸข
Otheropen-web3 JS library ๐ŸŸก, VM-Bridge ๐Ÿ”ด, srtool ๐ŸŸก, Substrate Tip Bot ๐ŸŸก, ORI (Onchain Risk Intelligence) ๐Ÿ”ด, PolkaTools ๐ŸŸก, polkadot-scripts ๐ŸŸก, Static analyzer for Substrate FRAME's pallets ๐ŸŸก, Sube ๐Ÿ”ด, data-store-sidecar ๐ŸŸก, SugarFunge ๐ŸŸก, substrate-wasmedge ๐ŸŸข

ink Smart Contractsโ€‹

ComponentsExisting projectsPotentially interesting projects
BridgesDante Protocol ๐ŸŸข
DeFiPolkadot AMM ๐Ÿ”ด, Vera ๐ŸŸข, Nsure Insurance ๐Ÿ”ด, Everlasting Cash ๐Ÿ”ด, Coinversation ๐Ÿ”ด, zenlink-dex-contract ๐ŸŸก, AlgoCash ๐Ÿ”ดNew seigniorage-style stable coins
GamingOpen Emoji Battler ๐ŸŸข, NewOmega ๐Ÿ”ด
DAOsubDAO ๐Ÿ”ด, RainbowDAO ๐Ÿ”ด
Spam ProtectionProsopo ๐ŸŸก
OtherCandle Auctions ๐Ÿ”ด, polkasign-contract ๐Ÿ”ด, OCEX ๐ŸŸก, Roloi ๐ŸŸก

Chains and Palletsโ€‹

ComponentsExisting projectsPotentially interesting projects
Scalable TransactionsPerun channels ๐ŸŸข, CLI demo of Perun ๐Ÿ”ด, Astar ๐ŸŸข, Celer ๐Ÿ”ด, Gunclear ๐Ÿ”ดroll-ups, DAG-based consensus mechanisms, side chains
BridgesinterBTC ๐ŸŸข, ChainBridge ๐ŸŸข, EOS by Bifrost ๐Ÿ”ด, POA - Substrate ๐Ÿ”ด, Substrate - Ethereum DAI Bridge ๐Ÿ”ด, Substrate - Substrate Bridge ๐Ÿ”ด, BTC by ChainX ๐ŸŸข, Cosmos-Substrate bridge ๐Ÿ”ด, Substrate IBC Pallet ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkadot Ethereum Bridge ๐ŸŸข, Darwinia ๐ŸŸข, Stellar/DeFi Bridge by Pendulum ๐Ÿ”ด, Filecoindot ๐ŸŸขZCash
PrivacyWebb Anon ๐Ÿ”ด, ZeroChain ๐Ÿ”ด, pLibra (Phala Network) ๐ŸŸข, Automata Network ๐ŸŸก, zCloak Network ๐Ÿ”ด, Zero Network ๐ŸŸขMulti-Asset Shielded Pool (MASP) , Zkay, Zexe
ZKPZeroPool ๐Ÿ”ด, Megaclite ๐Ÿ”ด, zkMega ๐Ÿ”ด, PLONK for Substrate ๐Ÿ”ด, Webb Anchor Protocol ๐ŸŸข
TEEAcurast ๐ŸŸข, Integritee ๐ŸŸข, substraTEE ๐Ÿ”ด
DeFiReef ๐ŸŸก, Diora ๐ŸŸก, Pendulum Chain ๐ŸŸข, Compound Gateway ๐Ÿ”ด, Parallel Finance ๐ŸŸข, PINT ๐Ÿ”ด, Laminar Chain ๐Ÿ”ด, Acala ๐ŸŸข, Centrifuge ๐ŸŸข, Stafi ๐ŸŸข, Definex ๐Ÿ”ด, OAX Foundation ๐Ÿ”ด, Cybex ๐Ÿ”ด, Zenlink ๐Ÿ”ด, Swaps Pallet ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkadex ๐ŸŸข, SubDEX ๐Ÿ”ด, HydraDX ๐ŸŸข, Substrate Stablecoin ๐Ÿ”ด, Standard protocol ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkaswap ๐ŸŸก, Curve AMM ๐Ÿ”ด, Konomi Network ๐Ÿ”ด, Composable Finance ๐ŸŸข, Stable Asset ๐ŸŸก, Libra Payment ๐ŸŸก, Mangata ๐ŸŸข, Tidechain ๐ŸŸขDEX with privacy and confidentiality features such as those found in a dark pool
Smart contract chainsmoonbeam ๐ŸŸข, Edgeware ๐Ÿ”ด, ParaState ๐Ÿ”ด, gear ๐ŸŸข, CENNZnet ๐ŸŸก, SkyeKiwi ๐Ÿ”ด, OAK-blockchain ๐ŸŸข, ICE Blockchain ๐ŸŸขsmart contract chains with novel security approaches, smart contract chains based on existing toolchains
OracleLaminar ๐ŸŸข, Parallel Finance ๐ŸŸข, Chainlink-polkadot ๐Ÿ”ด, Ares Protocol ๐ŸŸข, Kylin Network ๐ŸŸข, interbtc-clients oracle ๐ŸŸข, Anonima ๐Ÿ”ด, Apollo ๐ŸŸข
Identity/DIDLitentry ๐Ÿ”ด, pallet-did ๐Ÿ”ด, dot-id ๐Ÿ”ด
IoTNodle ๐ŸŸข, MXC/DataHighway ๐Ÿ”ด, peaq-network-node ๐ŸŸข
Verifiable ClaimsKILT ๐ŸŸข, Dock ๐ŸŸข, Fennel Protocol ๐ŸŸข
Supply chainDSCP Node ๐ŸŸก
Health careAriaHealth ๐Ÿ”ด
Social NetworkingSocial Network ๐Ÿ”ด, SubSocial ๐ŸŸข, ZeroDAO ๐Ÿ”ด, Myriad Node ๐ŸŸข, Wika Network ๐Ÿ”ด, Project Liberty ๐ŸŸข, Listen ๐ŸŸก, Tribal Protocol ๐ŸŸก, Five Degrees on Substrate ๐ŸŸข, Acuity Social ๐ŸŸขPrivate instant messenger that uses on-chain identity
Governance/DAOHashed Network ๐ŸŸข, Sunshine DAO ๐Ÿ”ด, Governance OS ๐Ÿ”ด, Idavoll Network ๐Ÿ”ด, Substrate Moloch ๐Ÿ”ด, QRUCIAL-DAO ๐ŸŸข, Societal โ”, DAOs ๐ŸŸกConsul - Open Government and E-Participation Web Software
Prediction Markets and FutarchyZeitgeist ๐ŸŸข, X Predict Market ๐Ÿ”ด
MessagingHOPR ๐Ÿ”ด, Nolik ๐ŸŸข
File Storage, CloudSubsocial-Offchain ๐Ÿ”ด, DatDot ๐Ÿ”ด, Crust Network ๐ŸŸข, offchain::ipfs ๐Ÿ”ด, Canyon Network ๐Ÿ”ด, CESS ๐ŸŸข, CESS Proving Subsystem ๐Ÿ”ด, Iris ๐Ÿ”ด, fmd-cess ๐Ÿ”ด, IPFS Frame V3 ๐ŸŸข, Threefold Chain ๐ŸŸข, Apron ๐Ÿ”ด
Name ServiceSubstrate Names ๐Ÿ”ด, ENS on Substrate ๐Ÿ”ด, PNS-Pallets ๐Ÿ”ด, Faceless ๐ŸŸก ๐ŸŸข, SubGame ๐Ÿ”ด, subzero ๐Ÿ”ด, Web3Games ๐Ÿ”ด, Ajuna Network ๐ŸŸข, Gafi Network ๐ŸŸก, Asylum
Computation/AIDeepBrain Chain ๐ŸŸข, AI Infrastructure on Blockchain ๐Ÿ”ด
Enable specific use-casesRobonomics ๐ŸŸข, UniversalDOT ๐ŸŸก, Evercity Sustainable Finance Protocol ๐ŸŸก, Fennel Protocol ๐ŸŸข, logion ๐ŸŸข
NFTternoa ๐ŸŸข, FRAME Pallet: NFTs for Substrate ๐Ÿ”ด, Unique NFT Parachain ๐ŸŸก, DNFT ๐Ÿ”ด, RMRK-Substrate ๐ŸŸข, NT-NFTs ๐ŸŸก, Green Lemon ๐ŸŸข
RandomnessDKG and Randomness Beacon ๐ŸŸข
LicensingAnagolay Network ๐ŸŸข
Banking IntegrationFIAT on-off-ramp ๐ŸŸก
CrowdfundingImbue Network ๐ŸŸข, Quadratic Funding pallet by Dora ๐Ÿ”ด, Quadratic Funding pallet by OAK ๐Ÿ”ดMinimum Anti-Collusion Infrastructure (MACI)
LicensingAnagolay Network ๐ŸŸข
Collection of PalletsSubstrate Open Runtime Module Library ๐ŸŸข, warehouse ๐ŸŸข, InvArch FRAME Pallet Library ๐ŸŸข
MarketplacesDot Marketplace ๐ŸŸก, Gated Marketplace ๐ŸŸข
Carbon CreditsBitGreen ๐ŸŸข, Carbon Assets Pallet ๐ŸŸข, Sequester Pallets ๐Ÿ”ด
OtherSubstrate Account Filter ๐Ÿ”ด, Subtensor ๐ŸŸข, AdMeta ๐ŸŸข, Chocolate Node ๐ŸŸก, Virto Network ๐ŸŸข, Substrate Validator Set ๐ŸŸก, DEIP ๐ŸŸก, DeBio ๐ŸŸข, MathChain ๐Ÿ”ด, encointer ๐ŸŸข, Grassland ๐Ÿ”ด, Substrate-Tutorials ๐ŸŸก, Fair Squares ๐ŸŸข, Totem Live Accounting ๐Ÿ”ด, Escrow Pallet ๐ŸŸขDecentralized review/reputation system


ComponentsExisting projectsPotentially interesting projects
RustSubstrate ๐ŸŸข, Cumulus ๐ŸŸข
C++Kagome ๐ŸŸข
GoGossamer ๐ŸŸข
Light ClientSubstrate Connect ๐ŸŸข

Network Maintenance Toolsโ€‹

ComponentsExisting projectsPotentially interesting projects
Secure validator setupPolkadot Validation Node Ansible Setup ๐ŸŸข, W3F Polkadot Validator Setup ๐Ÿ”ด
High availability setupArchipel ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkadot Failover Mechanism ๐Ÿ”ด
Load Balanced Endpointsterragrunt-polkadot ๐Ÿ”ด, Geometry Labs' Substrate Meta repo ๐Ÿ”ด
Deployment ToolsPolkadot Package Manager ๐Ÿ”ด, PolkaHub ๐Ÿ”ด, Avado ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkadot Deployer ๐Ÿ”ด
Validator monitoringONE-T ๐ŸŸข, SubVT ๐Ÿ”ด, P.A.N.I.C. ๐ŸŸก, Polkalert ๐Ÿ”ด, B-Harvest ๐Ÿ”ด, nmonpolkadot ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkadot-K8s-Monitor ๐ŸŸข, Polkadot-Watcher ๐ŸŸก, 1KV Telegram Bot ๐Ÿ”ด
Validator payout managementSubstrate validator auto payout ๐Ÿ”ด, Polkadot Payouts ๐ŸŸก, staking-payouts CLI ๐ŸŸข, Payctl ๐ŸŸก, crunch ๐ŸŸข
Staking MinerStaking Miner v2 ๐ŸŸข


ComponentsExisting projectsPotentially interesting projects
SR25519rust ๐ŸŸก(contains partial bindings for C, JavaScript, and Python), .Net bindings ๐Ÿ”ด, C ๐Ÿ”ด(old), C ๐Ÿ”ด(new), C/C++ ๐Ÿ”ด, C# ๐Ÿ”ด, Go ๐ŸŸก, java ๐Ÿ”ด, PHP ๐ŸŸข
Signature Aggregationapk-proofs ๐ŸŸข
Distributed key generation (DKG) ๐Ÿ”ด
Validator HSMsZondax Remote Signer ๐ŸŸก


ComponentsExisting projectsPotentially interesting projects
PoCSpartan ๐Ÿ”ด
PoWPoW consensus for Substrate ๐ŸŸข, RandomX ๐Ÿ”ด, Sha3 PoW ๐Ÿ”ด
Block productionBABE ๐ŸŸข, Aura ๐ŸŸข
FinalityGRANDPA ๐ŸŸข, AlephBFT ๐ŸŸข
OtherNimbus: Upgradeable consensus framework ๐ŸŸข


ComponentsExisting projectsPotentially interesting projects
DHT crawlerGo ๐Ÿ”ด, Kotlin ๐Ÿ”ด
RPC Tor-like accessWhiteNoise ๐Ÿ”ด


Pull requests, issues, or other contributions from the community are encouraged! You can not only add specific projects, but also potentially interesting fields/areas which are currently missing in the tech stack.

โ— All technologies listed above need to be open-source. Ideally, the links lead directly to the code.

Note: You will need a GitHub account to suggest changes or open issues. If you do not have one, you may sign up for free.